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在巴西最古老的考古遗址中挖掘的木材
国际木文化学会 | 8311 view(s) | 2011/02/15
2010IWCS_Shaanxi_中文版_Gregorio Ceccantini

会议名称:2010木文化国际研讨会——古木文化产业和遗产保护与修复
会议时间:2010年10月23日-24日
会议地点:中国·陕西

报告嘉宾:Gregorio Ceccantini 教授  巴西圣保罗大学

报告摘要:

Use of Wood in Some of the Oldest Brazilian Archaeological Sites

This communication will show results from researches performed with woods and charcoals from two of the oldest South American archaeological sites and one of the oldest buildings in S?o Paulo (Brazil). Aspects of wood conservation, anatomical identification, environmental and climate evolution and raise of culture and technology will be explored. Finally some additional comments will be added on the present timber exploration in Brazil and concerns about sustainable use of wood in tropical forests. Since the beginning of this century the idea that the oldest archaeological sites in American continent, were not in North America (Clovis) but in South America, increased its acceptance by anthropologists. This idea is strongly supported by numerous archaeological findings, from the last 30 years, with good stratygraphy, good chronologies and hundreds of isotopic datations of wood, charcoal and bones. This new achieviments are not only important by the ages involved, but also by the presence of a group of people, called “paleoindians”, or Luzia’s (the most famous fossil in that context) people, witch skull morphology is much more related to Melanesian people than Asian people, alike present indians. This new interpretation by Neves and collaborators, defending the presence of other ethnic population composition and a very ancient migration are under strong debate among anthropologists and geneticists, but at least the ages of the occupations and the presence of humankind in South America before 11,000 yeas B.P. are not controversial anymore. So, our studies are inserted in this scientific rich debate. Some important sites with the presence of paleoindians are those from Lagoa Santa Region (Lapa das Boleiras and Lapa do Santo, around 8,000-5,000 yr B.P.), Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. In this region we performed archaeologycal and paleontological excavations, to obtain wood, charcoal and other plant remains as pollen, fruits and seeds. Among these woody remains, we found an important diversity of species and it was possible to show: on the one hand, the presence of some of the present forest formations, but with evidences of vegetation variation about 5,000 yr B.P; on the other hand, to show that it is very likely that paleoindians had some level of domain of wood properties and could choose woods with higher density and heating content. In another site, West of Brazil, in Mato Grosso State. Far about 8000 kilometers of these sites, in the heart of S?o Paulo city, one of the biggest metropolitan centers of the world, there still are only five buildings from the XVII century that are the only construction vestiges of that time. They are called “casas bandeiristas”, because they were constructed at the time of the “bandeiras” (literally flags), the first Portuguese expeditions that left from the Brazilian East Cost to seek gold and precious stones in the heart of the continent. The “Casa bandeirista do Tatuapé” is one of these houses and keep inside its walls, woods from a forest that almost no longer exists. The walls are structured with wood poles and sticks, attached by lianas, and everything settled in a clay matrix that was compacted by the beating with wood hammers or poles or even naked hands. These walls allow us to see the woods available and the construction techniques. From these ancient times, thousands or hundreds of year ago, the use of wood was tremendously enhanced and the majority of forests in Brazilian Southeastern and South, specially “Mata Atlantica” a hotspot of biodiversity, was almost vanished from land. Our work is one sample of what could be this ancient Mata Atlantica and document the beginning of “wood culture” in our country.


Gregorio Ceccantini
Gregório C.T Ceccantini is plat biologist who dedicated the last 18 year studying the Brazilian native flora, especially woods. During his masters degree (1996) he worked on ecological wood anatomy of native plants from Cerrado biome and Mata Atântica, while in PhD (2002) he applied his knowledge on identification of plant remains of archaeological sites. He published papers on environmental evolution during the Quaternary, Botany teaching and also plant and wood anatomy. In the recent years he is also dedicating efforts studying tree rings in tropical trees and the effect of parasitic plants in its growth and structure. He was researcher within the Wood Basic Properties Group at the Institute of Technological Researches of the State of São Paulo (IPT, 1996-1998), professor at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR – 1998-2003). Presently, Dr. Ceccantini is tenure professor in the University of São Paulo (since 2003), curator of the Xyarium SPFw and communicating editor for Acta Ama

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