From Landscapes to the Home: Wood Culture of the Ifugao People of the Cordillera Philippines——2018世界木材日研讨会
国际木文化学会 | 1101 view(s) | 2019/04/30
会议地点：柬埔寨 · 暹粒
演讲嘉宾：Consuelo Dl. Habito, University of the Philippines Open University
摘要：Forests and forest products derived from it form an intimate relationship with the way of life of the Ifugao people living in the mountain ranges of the Cordillera in the northern part of Luzon, Philippines. Forests, gushing streams and rivers, terraced ricefields and distinct ethnolinguistic communities form an important agro-ecological system that is recognized worldwide. The Ifugao Rice Terraces are recognized as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) by the Food Agriculture Organization and a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Recent studies using carbon dating place the origins of the rice terraces from AD 1486-1788. Conklin (1980) distinguishes a communal forest (inalahan) from a privately owned woodlot (muyong). The communal forest are sources of firewood, forest products like rattan and wild game. Woodlots are sources of timber, fruit trees, bamboo, provides protection for lower ricefields against erosion and run-off, and springs that supply water to the rice fields. Ifugao hamlets or house terraces (latangan) are inhabited by households (bale) related by marriage or kinship.
There are about 17 rituals performed by a full time priest (mumbaki) following a schedule of activities related to rice cultivation. Important items of the rice ritual are the rice granary or guardian figures (bulul), wine vessels and ritual boxes which are made of wood. Another important ritual is the hagabi rite, the most prestigious ceremony of the elite class of Ifugao, the kadangyan. Related to the hagabi rite is the possession of the hagabi bench made of a single trunk to narra wood by the sponsor of the rite. Home or bale construction also requires another rite from the site location, start day of construction and the kinds of wood to be used. These rites are described in detail in this paper.
With the rice growing in the paddy fields, the men engage in other activities such as woodcarving to augment their incomes. Dry season allows for carving of housing materials such as shelves and beams, food containers, utensils, furniture and other items for the tourist market. Wooden spoons, plates, trays, stools, magazine racks, towel hangers, heavy furniture such as tables and benches and other souvenir items have filled souvenir shops and on-line stores.
Indeed, forested landscapes and wood, as an organic and renewable resource, are part and parcel of the cycle of life of the Ifugao peoples of the Cordillera.