Biodiversity and Cultural Diversity Key to Sustainable Development in Southwestern Morocco——2018世界木材日研讨会
国际木文化学会 | 1176 view(s) | 2019/05/08
会议地点：柬埔寨 · 暹粒
演讲嘉宾：EL MOUSSAOUITI Mohammed, Mohammed V University
摘要：Biodiversity in southwestern Morocco is strongly impacted by the effects of climate change and multiple forms of human exploitation that are reflected in deforestation, degradation of natural environments (erosion and desertification). The rural population has an effective relationship with the surrounding ecological resource, a source of livelihood for 3 million people in rural areas which depends on trees for oil, fodder, coal, wood and timber.
The most important tree species for biodiversity conservation and community welfare in southwestern Morocco are the Thyua tree (Tetraclinis articulata) and, the Argan tree (Argania spinosa). The thuya woodlands are subject to increasing pressure from the tourism industry’s demand for handicrafts made from the roots of the tree (burls). The thuya wood is mainly used by artisans to create and sculpt beautiful objects whose scent and color are pleasant and unique.
Argania spinosa is a thorny evergreen tree, endemic to southwestern Morocco. it is the most remarkable species in North Africa, because of its botanical and bio-ecological interest and its social values, with multiple uses and anchored in the local traditions, it is therefore the key biotic material for the sustainable development and the cultural entity of choice. Thus, at the suggestion of the Moroccan public authorities, Unesco classified the range of the argan tree in the Arganeraie biosphere reserve in 1998. Argan tree grows on calcareous soils in the valleys between the hills of thuya in a region where rainfall hardly exceeds 200 - 300 mm/year. . In the areas to the extreme south of the its range, argan woodlands form a green belt that provides one of the most efficient biotic shields against desertification.
Despite considerable efforts to control the regeneration of the argan tree through reforestation programs to balance the constraints of natural factors and human over-exploitation, those trees have a positive impact on several aspects, economic, social and natural, firstly through the oil extracted from the fruit kernls of the argan tree, requested and known worldwide for its health benefits (food, 3 pharmaceuticals and cosmetics), then through thyua for the expansion of the handicraft industry and for high value products (beautiful furniture and other woodwork, marquetry).