Geometrical Analysis on the Design of Stringed Instruments - a Useful Method for Luthiers and Musicologists——2019世界木材日研讨会
国际木文化学会 | 1035 view(s) | 2019/08/12
演讲嘉宾：Simone Regina Zopf
HTBLA Hallstatt, Austria
The design of musical instruments between the 16tth & 19th century, was, like many other pieces of art, strongly influenced by the ideas of Pythagoras and other numerical rules for proportions. The discovery of such patterns, using the geometrical analysis, can be very helpful and provides a lot of information about origin or the education of the luthier,the possible transfer of knowledge and finally, the construction of the instrument itself. It can help to reconstruct missing parts of the instrument and to understand the way it was built. Based on the knowledge of historical drawings and measuring tools, techniques and methods were developed to reveal the principles of the design of stringed instruments.
Method and research aims
The basis of geometrical analysis was undertaken, in one way, by studying & drawing the outlines of real objects such as violins of Antonio Stradivari,instruments of Gasparo da Salo, a viola da gamba of Henry Jaye & guitars of Johann Georg Stauffer & in another way, by studying high quality photographs of instruments and applying reliable measurements.
More than 50 instruments were investigated with the probable measuring unit. Rulers and concentric patterns, based on this unit, were built and a compass fashioned after a historical model, was constructed. Subsequently, the possible construction of the instrument was transferred to AutoCAD or another 'drawing' software. When the analysis was finished, the whole process of the construction was verified by more than ten students and drawn by hand, using the historical tools to prove the practicability & reliability of the geometrical analysis. Adaptions, if necessary, were made. Finally, step by step instructions were compiled.
The aim of this study was:
to find the possible 'standard length unit' of each instrument
to understand the construction of the outline
to obtain information about the geographical distribution of measuring units
to gain knowledge for substituting missing parts
to compare designs of different instrument builders, to understand the transfer of knowledge
to attribute instruments to a certain instrument builder or region
The possible usage of the Roman oncia for the construction of Cremonese and Brescian instruments could be shown, also the existence of the particular constructional system, using concentric circles for the Cremonese Violins. The usage of the Augsburg inch could be discovered in many instruments of German luthiers, confirming theories of origin and relations between them or the transfer of knowledge. Due to the analysis and research of an English violin, formations for the length of the original neck could be obtained. A method of analysing the design of instruments was developed and the possibilities and limits of this method are discussed. Several constructional patterns could be found and will be published to expand the knowledge pertaining to the design of instruments.