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Wood Use for Building in Slovenia – Examples from the Past and Current Challenges-2019世界木材日研讨会
国际木文化学会 | 105 view(s) | 2020/03/17

会议时间:2019年3月21-23日
会议地点:奥地利·格拉茨
演讲嘉宾:Katarina Cufar
                 
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Gerald Koch

摘要:
Inspired by the results of woodresearch in the Open-air museum in Stübing and other museums in Austriaconducted by Michael Grabner and co-workers, we intend to present and discusshistorical and current wood use for building purposes in nearby Slovenia withslightly different phytogeographical characteristics.

We have studied over 150historical buildings and constructions including those from archaeologicalexcavations, historical vernacular buildings, castles and other monumentalbuildings from different periods. Wood anatomy and dendrochronology helped usto identify wood species as well as to define age of the constructions,different building phases and repairs. As a rule, we could also define if thewood was local or imported from other regions.

In Slovenia currently 58% ofthe area is covered by forests. Predominating wood species are European beech(Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), European silver fir (Abiesalba) and oak (mainly Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and their shares in thewood stock are 32, 30, 7 and 7% respectively. Results of our investigationsshow that availability and use of different wood species largely varied in timeand space. In prehistoric pile dwelling sites at the Ljubljansko barje, 99% ofthe investigated wood belonged to 10 hardwood species, and the proportions ofoak and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were the highest. Wood species in ancientRoman constructions were mainly oak, silver fir and beech. Various up to500-year old constructions in SE Slovenia were mainly made of oak, whereassilver fir became more frequent in the 18th century and Norway spruce in the19th century. In the NW Alpine region mainly conifers with varying shares oflarch, silver fir and Norway spruce were used. In the coastal region most ofthe wood for building was imported and the choice of wood species varied inagreement with socio-political situation which influenced the timber trade.

Since the end of the 19thcentury wood use for building was reduced to increase fire safety. Recentlywood use is increasing and Norway spruce is the leading species for building.However, traditional ways of wood utilization and recent investigations showthat we could increase the use of hardwoods, especially beech. Currentsystematic investigations of wood properties of 17 alien wood species show thatalso species like Ailanthus altissima and others could have a potential to beused for building purposes.

                                                                                                                                                                                   编辑:彭辉