Local Customs, Traditional Craftsmanship and Knowledge of the Natural World - Cultural Heritage Related to Forests and Woodwork——2019世界木材日研讨会
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Austrian Commission for UNESCO, Austria
摘要：Cultural heritage does not end at historical monuments and natural sites of universal value. It also includes living expressions that are being transmitted from one generation to the next, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals and festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts. The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), adopted on 17 October 2003 by the UNESCO General Conference and ratified by 178 States Parties to date, is a living form of heritage, which evolves as we adapt our practices and traditions in response to our environment. It provides a sense of belonging and relies on the principle of sustainability to the same extent as it values cultural and natural diversity. Various studies have shown that ICH is employed daily by communities, on all continents, to tackle everything from food scarcity and natural dangers to health problems or conflict resolution. Defined by a sustainable use of nature’s resources, and the transmission over time, ICH is a vibrant source of experience and accumulated knowledge.
Since the ratification of the Convention by Austria in 2009, the Austrian Commission for UNESCO has undertaken a diverse range of safeguarding measures to ensure the viability of the ICH, inter alia identifying and defining such heritage through a national inventory. The National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Austria is regularly updated with the participation of bearers and practitioners. To this day, it counts 117 elements and includes several examples of knowledge and practices that are related to forests and woodwork, such as charcoal burning, pitch oil extraction ro Knowledge concerning hazel spruce as a tonewood. The inclusion of these elements as well as interdisciplinary cooperations have contributed to a broadened understanding of cultural heritage on the national level that highlights cultural potentials in the realm of forestry as well as it provides an impetus for rural development in Austria.